Types of Tenses with Examples and Formula-chart

Today we have-12 Types of Tenses with Examples and Formula or structure . I hope , This article are helpful your Quires or question about tenses-Grammar

PRESENT TENSETypes of Tenses

(a) Simple Present or Present Indefinite Tense

Structure- Subject + verb (I st form) verb (I st form) + s/es

  1. To express habitual action, custom or character.

(i) Roger goes to church every Sunday.
(ii) College begins at ten o’clock
(ii) We play cricket

  1. To express permanent truth or facts.
    EX-(i) The sun rises in the east.
    (ii) Water boils at 100°C.
  2. To express a fact that is true at the time of speaking.
    Ex. A platform ticket costs 50 paise.
  3. To describe events as they are actually going on at the given moment.
    it is often used in running commentaries during sports events.
    Ex.-Rehan passes the ball to Ravi and Ravi throws it right on the stumps.
  4. To express planned action in the future.

    (i) We arrive in New Delhi at 11 A.M. on Monday.
    (ii) He leaves for Mumbai by Youwan Airlines.
    6.It is used to describe a past event in a vivid or dramatic manner.
    So it is called ‘historic present’.

Ex.-(i) The English attack the Country and rule over it.
(ii) Othello comes forward and holds Desdemona by the neck.

(a) In simple present form the first form of verb is generally used.

(b) In case of a subject being third person singular number, s/es is
added to verb (v + s/es).

(c) In negative transformations do not/does not is used.

(d) In interrogative form do/does is used in the beginning of a statement.
Ex.-(1) Ram goes to Agra.
Ram does not go to Agra.
Does Ram go to Agra ?
(ii) Birds fly in the sky.
Birds do not fly in the sky.
Do birds fly in the sky ?
Note-Learner should note that the present simple assertive has no auxiliary verb.

Types of Tenses with Examples and Formula-chart

(b) Present Continuous Tense

1.This form of tense suggests that the action is actually happening or in
progress at the moment.

This is therefore the real present.

Structure-Subject + is/am/are + (verb + ing)
2. In negative form ‘not’ is used after helping/auxiliary verb is/am/are.
3. In interrogative sentences, helping verb is/am/are is put in the beginning.
Ex.-Shubham is sleeping in the room.

Negative : Shubham is not sleeping in the room.
Interrogative : Is Shubham sleeping in the room ?
2.It is also used to describe an action that is in progress and will be continued but not necessarily going on at the time of speaking.
Ex.-The college authorities are constructing a new hostel.
3.It is sometimes used to express one’s plans to take place in the near future
Ex.-(i) He is visiting the town tomorrow.
(ii) I am meeting the Chief Minister tomorrow morning.

  1. When present continuous form is used with always, constantly, regularly, repeatedly etc., it often suggests disapproval.
    Ex.-The boys are always complaining about the food.
    5.There are a number of verbs which are not normally used in the present continuous form. These are :
    (i) Verbs of perception.
    Ex.-see, hear, smell.
    (ii) Verbs which express feelings/states of mind.
    Ex.-want, desire, wish, refuse, forgive, care, hate, like, dislike, admire
    (iii) Verbs suggesting process of thinking.
    Ex.-think, feel, know, mean, suppose etc.
    (iv) Verbs denoting possession.
    Ex.-have, own, owe, belong, possess.
    (v) Verbs such as-contain, consist, keep, cost, seem.

6.When some of the verbs listed above are used in the present continuous form,
their meanings change.

Ex-(i) (a) I see a temple on that hill.
(b) I am seeing the principal at 3 P.M. (visiting)
(ii) (a) I think the committee will reject his appeal.
(b) He is thinking seriously of resigning. (considering)

12 Types of Tenses with Examples and Formula-chart

(C) Present Perfect Tense

This tense expresses actions and events completed in the past.
But what said has a current relevance, some link with the present.

Structure Subject + has/have + third form of verb

(i) Has’ is used only in case of third person singular number subject.

(ii) In negative form not’ is used after has/have.

(iii) In interrogative form has/have is used in the beginning of a

Ex.- I have finished my work.
Negative : He has not finished his work.
Interrogative : Have they done their work ?

Present perfect is used
1.To express an experience in the past.
Ex.-(i) I have seen the Taj Mahal.
(ii) They have eaten Chinese food.

2.To express an action which began in the past and still continuing.
Ex.–He has lived in this house for twenty years.
‘for’ is used to indicate period of time and since’ is used to indicate point of time.

3.To express an action completed in the past but with current relevance.
Ex.-He has found a job.

English Grammar-Types of Tenses with Examples and Formula-chart

(d) Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Structure Subject + has/have + been + (verb + ing)

This tense is used to express

  1. An action or event that began some time ago, has continued till now
    and is still going on.

    (i) I have been living in this house since 1940.
    (ii) He has been fishing for two hours, but hasn’t caught anything yet.
    (iii) How long have you been waiting for me?
    An action which was going on till a very recent point of time and whose effect
    or result is still present.
    Ex.–I am cold because I have been swimming for an hour.
  2. We can use present perfect tense in place of present perfeet continuous in case
    the verb carries a sense of continuous action. generally “for or ‘since’ is used
    in such sentences.
    Ex.-(i) I have lived in this house for 20 years.
    I have been living in this house for 20 years.
    (ii) I have taught in this college since 1960.
    I have been teaching in this college since 1960.

PAST TENSE-Types of Tenses

(a) Simple Past or Past Indefinite Tense
This tense expresses a single act in the past.
Structure-Subject + Verb in 2nd form.
In negative sentences, first form of verb is used after ‘did not’.
In interrogative ‘did’ or ‘did not’ is used in the beginning of a sentence.
Ex.-Madan wrote a letter. (Assertive)
Madan did not write a letter. (Negative)
Did Madan write a letter ? (Interrogative)
Didn’t Madan write a letter ? (Negative interrogative)
Simple past is used
1.To express habitual or regular action in the past, (compare with present simple)

Ex.-Everyday he went for a walk.

  1. To express an action in past which is ended now.
    Ex.-He lived in Delhi for 10 years.

3.To express events that occurred at a particular time in the past.
Ex.—My father left for Delhi yesterday.

(b) Past Continuous Tense –

This tense expresses an action in progress in the past.

Structure-Subject + was/were + (verb + ing).
Past progressive tense is used to express
This tense is used to express the following situations

1, An action in progress at a point of time in the past.

Ex.-(i) At 7 A.M. this morning.I was reading a newspaper.
(ii) At 8.30 A.M. I was having my breakfast.

2.An action in progress over a period of time in the past.
Ex.-(i) What were you doing yesterday evening ?
(ii) I was writing letters.

3.A continuing action at the same point of time in the past when another
action took place.
Ex.-(i) The train was crossing the bridge when the bridge broke down
(ii) I was reading a newspaper when the peon knocked at the door
4.When two or more actions are going on at the same time conjunction
while’ is used.

(i) While some boys were reading in the library, some others were
playing outside.
(ii) While Rome was burning, Nero was fiddling.
5.Adverbs used with the past progressive tense are
always, continually, constantly, forever.
Ex.-(i) She was always scolding her children.
(ii) The children were constantly asking for sweets.

(c) Past Perfect Tense

Past perfect tense describes an action completed before some special past

Structure—Subject + had + verb in third form.
Ex.-The train had left before we reached the station.

The Past Perfect Tense is used to express
An action in the past which was completed before another action in the past

Ex.-—The train had left when we reached the station.

When from a point of time in the past, we look backward at an event
that happened earlier in the past.
Ex.-At nine o’clock the plane had left.
Actions or events in the past which denote causes or reasons for later actions in the past.
Ex.–I didn’t know the man because I had not seen him before.

For an unfulfilled wish or condition in the past.
Ex.-(i) I wish I had accepted the job.
(ii) If only the letter had arrived in time.

When two simple past might give the impression that the two actions happened at the same time.
Ex.-When he had made his speech he sat down.

(d) Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Structure-Subject + had + been + (verb + ing)
It expresses an action or event that had begun before and was
going on up to a given point of time in the past.

Ex.-(i) The telephone had been ringing for five minutes but there was no one to attend it.
Note-This tense bears the same relation to past perfect as the
present perfect continuous bears to the present perfect.


(a) Future Simple or Future Indefinite Tense
Generally simple future tense is expressed by using will/shall.
The sentences structure is-

Structure-Subject + shall/will + verb-{first form)
Future simple tense is used to express

  1. As a rule, ‘shall’ is used with first person (I, we) and ‘will’ is used with
    2nd and 3rd persons (you, he/she/it, they).
    Ex.-(i) I shall return your note books tomorrow.
    (ii) You will know your result in a day or two.
    (iii) Our team will win the match.
    (iv) Man will land on Mars someday.
    Now a days ‘will’ is also used widely with first person to express simple future,
  2. Simple future tense can be expressed by using simple present or present
    progressive. This also expresses something planned.
    Ex-(i). Our cricket team leaves for Mumbai this evening.
    (ii). The college team is playing a football match with the town
    team next Sunday.
    (iii). The school closes on 15th May.
  3. To express subjects intention to perform a future action present progressive
    is used in this form-

Ex-(i) I am going to buy a bicycle.
(ii) If he doesn’t apologies, I am not going to excuse him.

4.To express an event which is likely to happen shortly about to + verb is used
Ex-The train is about to leave.
5.Be + to + the first form of verb is also used to express a duty or necessity or planned course of action in the future.

Ex.-I am to be at the meeting at 5 o’clock,

(b) Future Continuous Tense

Structure-shall/will + be + (verb + ing).

This tense is used to express

The actions that will be in progress at a given point of time in future.
Ex-When I reach Simla, it will be snowing there.

Future continuous tense form is less definite than the present continuous form used in the same case.
Ex.-(i) I am taking I.A.S. preliminary examination next month.
(ii) I will be taking L.A.S. preliminary examination next month.

In the same manner future indefinite tense is more emphatic than future
progressive tense.
Ex-(i) We will ask Dr. James to examine mother,
(ii) We will be asking Dr. James to examine mother,
In this example

(ii) statement is a matter of routine and the (i) statement
is a deliberate intention.

Types of Tenses with Examples and Formula-chart

(c) Future Perfect Tense-Types of Tenses with Examples and Formula

Structure-shall/will + have + verb (past participle form).
It is used to express
1.An action which is expected to be completed by a certain time in the future.
Ex-I shall have finished this book by the middle of next month

Sometimes it is used to express not the future but the speakers belie
Ex.-You will have read about the Wright Brothers,

12 types of tenses with examples and formula